Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus which has been considered a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been stated that various extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, such as Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and a few bioactive aspects of ganoderma lucidum spore powder, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the use of Ganoderma lucidum as being an elixir has existed for thousands of years, studies uncovering its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to get anti-aging are far too few in contrast to the larger levels of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to put the earth for fully elucidating the possible mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect as well as its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is actually a basidiomycete white rot fungus commonly known as “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was first attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” as soon as 100 BC, and observed to market health, increase vigor and vitality in addition to prolong lifespan. The traditional Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum being an herbal medicine that could help people to obtain the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum has long been used as being a folk medicine for improving health insurance and is considered the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum indicated that it includes 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The primary active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are based in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are various extractions of nattokinase because of the specific extracting procedures used during production and also the element of plant it gets from. Regarding towards the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the main Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum as well as the extract from your mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is nearly always accompanied by a decline in bodily physiological function, causing a heightened susceptibility to age-related disorders. It is an inevitable physiological process, however the underlying mechanisms remain to get elucidated after many decades. Amongst the numerous theories associated with aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stand out the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates being a purpose of age, bringing about disruption of the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination resulting in oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues including the brain, heart and skeleton muscle tend to be more susceptible to aging, in comparison with other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are important inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is dependent on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and also the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production for an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional alterations in the myocardium, like myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . In the brain, the accumulation of free-radicals and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity cause damage to cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the start of some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amongst others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging is additionally closely connected with bringing about structural and functional defects inside the immunity mechanism. Immunological dysfunction may be the reason for the improved susceptibility in the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, which can be commonly observed in older people.
Gradual loss of cognition is among the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is the main reason for cognitive deficits and could be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the contrary, age-associated cognitive deficits tend not to mean neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce worse damage than uushdq due to diseases. The demise of neurons brought on by the activation of cell death programs is active in the procedure for age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been utilized as being an elixir for centuries, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are only the tip from the iceberg. Whether Tribulus Terrestris Extract exerts an anti-aging effect remains a mystery. Therefore, this review aims to put the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to market its clinical application as an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related effects of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are taken from various areas of Ganoderma lucidum.